Since the turn of the millennium, immigrants to most European Union Member states are faced with a new challenge. In addition to learning a new language, adapting to a new culture, finding a job, and starting a new life in a foreign land, they must now successfully pass integration examinations. Over the past 20 years, European nations have instituted language and integration testing as a requirement for naturalization, and in some cases for permanent residence, for their newcomers. The content of these tests and the level of language proficiency required from the immigrant vary by country and the results of these tests (in terms of an increase or decrease in naturalization rates) fluctuate depending on the rigor of the test. Some nations have even created tests upon departure from the home country, with the hope of ensuring that the immigrant they are to receive is committed to his full integration. In this book, Ricky van Oers, a Dutch researcher at the Radbout University Centre for Migration Law, Eva Ersbøll, a lawyer and researcher at the Danish Institute for Human Rights, and Dora Kostakopoulou, the Director of the Centre for European Law at the University of Southampton, combine papers presented at a 2008 seminar to draw a portrait of the various formulas for integration testing in the European Union. The book examines the practices of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. This choice of countries is a microcosm of European policies: the study includes “old” (i.e. the Netherlands and Germany) and “new” (i.e. Latvia and Hungary) European nations; it includes federations of regions (i.e. Austria and Belgium) as well as unitary states (i.e. France and Denmark); and their study importantly examines the United Kingdom, a country that has often followed a separate path than mainland Europe, and stands apart since its dominant language, English, is also the global lingua franca.